Un tournant géopolitique vers le nouvel ordre mondial et la gestion de l’environnement ?








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Our Common Future, Oxford University Press, N.Y 1987; Comisión del Sur, Desafío para el sur, Fondo de Cultura Económica, México, 1991; PNUD, Desarrollo Humano, Tercer Mundo Editores, Bogotá, 1991; Comisión de Desarrollo y Medio Ambiente de América Latina y el Caribe, Nuestra Propia Agenda, BID y PNUD, 1990; Diálogo del Nuevo Mundo, Pacto para un Nuevo Mundo, World Resources Institute, Washington, 1991; IUCN, The World Conservation Union, UNEP, WWF, Caring for the Earth, a Strategy for Sustainable Living, IUCN,UNEP, WWF, Gland, 1991 et Banque Mondiale, Informe sobre el Desarrollo Mundial 1992, Desarrollo y Medio Ambiente, Banque Mondiale, Washington, 1992.

103 Secretaría de Comercio y Fomento Industrial, Tratado de Libre Comercio entre México, Canadá y Estados Unidos. Resumen, SECOFI, 1992, México, p. 32.

104 Cf. Banque Mondiale, op. cit.; GATT, International Trade 1990-1991, Génève 1992; Peter A.G. van Bergeijk, "International Trade and Environmental Challenge", Journal of World Trade, vol. 25, num.6 décembre 1991 et David Dodwell, " Environment Better Served by Free Trade Carrot than Proteccionist Stick", Financial Times, 13 mai 1992.

105 Gene M. Grossman et Alan B. Krüger, Environmental Impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement, communication au Seminaire sur le Traité de Libre Échange entre les Etats Unis et le Mexique, 3 octobre 1991, Mexique.

106 Il s'agit de projets pour bâtir des dépôts nucléaires à basse intensité dans les bourgs de Spofford, à 48 km de Piedras negras, Coahuila et de Dryen, à 125 km de Ciudad Acuña, Tamaulipas.

107


108 See Max Oelschlaeger, The Idea of Wilderness: From Prehistory to the Age of Ecology (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, 1991), Chapter Three 'The Alchemy of Modernism: The Transmutation of Wilderness into Nature', pp. 68ff.

109 Kolakowski observes that 'we may not a priori exclude the reality of mystical experience that provides some people with this privileged access; but their experience cannot be re-forged into a theory'. Laszek Kolakowski, Metaphysical Horror (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988), p. 98.

110 Examples will be drawn from a recent collection, Andrew Hurrell and Benedict Kingsbury (eds), The International Politics of the Environment: Actors, Interests, and Institutions (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992), but note many other recent works in this area, including: Gareth Porter and Janet Welsh Brown, Global Environmental Politics (Oxford and Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1991); Ian Rowlands and Malory Greene (eds), Global Environmental Change and International Relations (London: Macmillan, 1991); Richard Benedick, Ozone Diplomacy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991); Paul Smith and Kiki Warr, Global Environmental Issues (London: Open University, 1991); John E. Carroll (ed), International Environmental Diplomacy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988).

111 see I. Brownlie, Principles of Public International Law, 4th ed., (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990).

112 Patricia Birnie, "International Environmental Law: Its Adequacy for Present and Future Needs" in Hurrell and Kingsbury, op. cit.

113 See for example Part II, 'Institutions', of Hurrell and Kingsbury, op. cit.

114Wilfred Beckerman, "Global Warming and International Action: An Economic Perspective" in Hurrell and Kingsbury, op. cit.

115 Henry Shue, "The Unavoidability of Justice" in Hurrell and Kingsbury, op. cit.

116 Oran Young, Paul Stern and Daniel Druckman (eds), Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1992), p. 167ff.

117 See, for example, Peter M. Haas, "Policy Responses to Stratospheric Ozone Depletion" in Global Environmental Change (Vol. 1 No. 3, June 1991), p. 224

118 Mary Douglas and Aaron Wildavsky, Risk and Culture: An Essay on the Selection of Technical and Environmental Dangers (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1982), pp. 1, 5.

119 Ibid. p. 8.

120 Baruch Fischhoff, Sarah Lichtenstein and Paul Slovic, "Approaches to Acceptable Risk: A Critical Guide" (Prepared for Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1980), pp. ii-iii, cited in Douglas and Wildavsky, op. cit.

121 Keith Thomas notes by way of example, in his introduction to C.C.W. Taylor (ed) Ethics and the Environment (proceedings of a conference held at Corpus Christi College, Oxford 20-21 Sept. 1991. Copyright 1992, the individual authors, and available from the College Secretary), a recent bibliography running to sixty-one pages and including four journals "exclusively devoted to environmental ethics and conservation": Nature Conservancy Council, Environmental Philosophy, A Bibliography (Centre for Philosophy and Public Affairs, University of St. Andrews, 1990). Works the present author has found useful are Max Oelschlaeger, The Idea of Wilderness: From Prehistory to the Age of Ecology (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, 1991), J. Ronald Engel and joan Gibb Engel, Ethics of Environment and Development: Global Challenge and International Response (Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 1990), Nigel Dower (ed), Ethics and Environmental Responsibility (Aldershot: Avebury, 1989), and Philip P. Hanson (ed), Environmental Ethics: Philosophical and Policy Perspectives (Burnaby, BC: Institute for the Humanities / Simon Fraser University, 1986).

122 Harlan Cleveland, The Global commons: Policy for the Planet (London: The Aspen Institute and Universty Press of America, 1990) provides a useful overview of the concept.

123 A useful insight is provided by Richard Sylvan "A Critique of Deep Ecology", Radical Philosophy (Vol. 40, Summer 1985), pp. 2-12.

124 For an insight into this eco-cult approach to the self-regulating biosphere as a kind of goddess, no better than the founding J.E. Lovelock, Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987) and The Ages of Gaia: A Biography of Our Living Earth (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988).

125 Max Oelschlaeger, The Idea of Wilderness: From Prehistory to the Age of Ecology (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, 1991), in Chapter Ten 'Cosmos and Wilderness: A Postmodern Wilderness Philosophy', p. 339.

126 Daniel Deudney, 'The Case Against Linking Environmental Degradation and National Security' Millennium (Vol. 19, No. 3, Winter 1990), pp. 461ff. See also his 'Environmental Security: Muddled Thinking' Bulletin of The Atomic Scientists (April 1991), pp. 22-28.

127 Barry Buzan, People, States and Fear, 2nd Ed. (Hemel Hempstead, Herts: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1991), p. 103.

128 Dennis Pirage, 'Environmental Security and Social Evolution' International Studies Notes (Vol. 16, No. 1, Winter 1991), p. 8.

129 Lester R. Brown, Redefining National Security Worldwatch Institute Paper No. 14 (Washington, DC: Worldwatch Institute, 1977) and Lester R. Brown, 'Redefining National Security' in Lester R. Brown, et al, State of the World 1986 A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress Toward a Sustainable Society (New York: Norton 1986).

Neville Brown, 'Climate Ecology and International Security' Survival (Vol. 31 No. 6, 1989), pp. 519-32.

Simon Dalby, 'Modernity, Ecology and the Dilemmas of Security' (paper presented at the 33rd Annual Convention of the International Studies Association, Atlanta, 4 April 1992). See also his 'Security, Modernity, Ecology: The Dilemmas of Post-Cold War Security Discourse' Alternatives (Vol. 17, No. 1, 1992).

Thomas F. Homer-Dixon, 'On the Threshold: Environmental Changes as Causes of Acute Conflict' International Security (Vol. 16, No. 2, Fall 1991), pp. 76-116.

Jessica T. Mathews, 'Redefining Security' Foreign Affairs (Vol. 68, No. 2 (1989), pp. 162-77.

Norman Myers, 'Environment and Security' Foreign Policy.(No. 74, 1989), pp 23-41..

Dennis Pirages, 'Environmental Security and Social Evolution' International Studies Notes (Vol. 16, No. 1, Winter 1991), pp. 8-13.

Michael Renner, National Security: The Economic and Environmental Dimensions (Washington, DC: Worldwatch Institute Paper No. 89, 1989).

Michael Renner, 'Enhancing Global Security' in Lester R. Brown, et al, State of the World 1989 A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress Toward a Sustainable Society (New York: Norton 1989).

Ian H. Rowlands, 'The Security Challenges of Global Environmental Change' Washington Quarterly (Vol. 14, No. 1, Winter 1991), pp. 99-114.

Theodore C. Sorenson, 'Rethinking National Security' Foreign Affairs (Vol. 69, No. 3 (1990), pp. 1-18.

Ann Tickner, 'Redefining Security: A Feminist Perspective' (unpublished, 1989).

Richard H. Ullman, 'Redefining Security' International Security (Vol. 8, No. 1, Summer 1983), pp. 129-53.

See also the Environmental Security Network Newsletter.(Vol. 1, No. 1, Fall 1991).

130 see the discussion on p. 12 of this paper.

131 Ullman, op. cit., pp. 152-3.

132 John H. Herz, International Politics in the Atomic Age, pbk. ed.(New York and London: Columbia University Press, 1959), p. 76.

133 ibid., p. 303.

134 ibid., p. 231. For alternative discussions of the essentially tragic 'security dilemma', see Herbert Butterfield, History and Human Relations (London: Collins, 1951), pp. 19-20; Arnold Wolfers, Discord and Collaboration (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1962), pp. 3-24, and Robert Jervis, Perception and Misperception in International Politics (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976), p. 66.

135 Peter F. Drucker, The New Realities (London: Mandarin, 1990), p. 110-111.

136 Ken Conca, 'Peace Studies and the Multiple Meanings of the Global Environment' (paper presented at the 33rd Annual Convention of the International Studies Association, Atlanta, 4 April 1992).

137 ibid.

138 Wallace S.Broecker, 'Global Warming on Trial' Natural History (April 1992), pp. 6-14.

139 Ian H.Rowlands, 'Environmental Issues in World Politics', in N.J. Rengger and John Baylis (eds), Dilemmas of World Politics: International Issues in a Changing World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992), p. 299.

140 Pirages, op cit., p. 8.

141 ibid.

142 Rowlands, 'Environmental Issues...', op cit., p. 299.

143 Pirages, op. cit., p 9.

144 op cit., see note 4.

145 Sorenson, op. cit., p. 15.

146 Mathews, op cit.

147 People, States and Fear, op. cit., pp. 256-8.

148 World Commission on Environment and Development (Gro Harlem Brundtland, Chairman), Our Common Future (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987), pp. 290-304.

149 Bruce Rich, The Emperor's New Clothes: The World Bank and Environmental Reform' World Policy Journal (Vol. 7, No. 2, Spring 1990), pp. 307-329.

150 Gareth Porter and Janet Welsh Brown, Global Environmental Politics (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1991), p. 141.

151 Our Common Future, op. cit.

152 ibid., p. 302-03.

153 ibid., p. 19.

154 The Independent Commission on Disarmament and Security Issues (Olaf Palme, Chairman), Common Security: A Programme for Disarmament (London: Pan, 1982).

155 Sorensen, op. cit., p. 3.

156 Teresa P. Johnson, 'Writing for International Security: A Contributors' Guide' International Security (Vol. 16, No. 2, Fall 1991), p. 172: 'The Editors define the subject of international security broadly to cover all matters pertinent to the use, threat, and control of force'.

157 Although Buzan argues that there is 'a rising prospect that a new norm of international society will develop from an increasing concern over ecological issues'. People, States and Fear, op. cit., p. 172.

158 ibid., pp. 19-20.

159 The distinction between between early (1960s) environmentalism and subsequent (1980s) deep ecology movements is addressed in John Young, Post-Environmentalism (London: Belhaven Press, 1990).

160 Professeur de sciences économiques - Université Paris 7

Président du comité ESCG-Économie et société face aux changements globaux, du Programme Eclat du Ministère de l'Environnement

Membre du Groupe de Vézelay


161 Cf E. Morin, La méthode, T. III La connaissance de la connaissance, Livre I Anthropologie de la connaissance, Seuil, Paris, 1986; et Science avec conscience, Fayard, Paris, 1982.

162 Reproduction qui n'est jamais à l'identique, puisque auto-production porteuse ensemble de continuité et de changements.

163 C'est à dire dans le champ, non alors séparé, de ce que nous pouvons aujourd'hui qualifier d'"économique".

164 Boulding K. E., "The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth", in Jarrett H. ed., Environmental Quality in a Growing Economy, Baltimore, The John Hopkins Press, 1966, p. 3 - 14. Commoner B., The Closing Circle. Nature, Man and Technology, 1971. Trad. fr, L'Encerclement, Paris, Seuil, 1972. Club de Rome, Halte à la croissance? Rapport sur les limites de la croissance, Fayard, Paris, 1972. Georgescu-Roegen Nicholas 1979. Demain la décroissance. Entropie, écologie, économie, Lausanne et Paris, Ed. Pierre-Marcel Favre. Passet René,
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