Aires protégées et Conservation de la biodiverisité I

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titreAires protégées et Conservation de la biodiverisité I
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Remarques de conclusion

Cette module a décrit les manières avec lesquelles les aires protégées, le seul outil de conservation le plus important (Rodrigues et al, 2004b), peuvent être créées pour conserver la biodiversité. Actuellement, il existe un système global d’aires protégées qui couvre à peu près 12% de la surface continentale de la terre grâce à des initiatives internationales, régionales et nationales. Ce système peut ne pas être optimal, toutefois de nombreux parcs peuvent atteindre les objectifs de conservation de la biodiversité, le développement durable, et l’usage multiple. Les sites peuvent être choisis pour protéger des espèces spécifiques, permettant aussi la conservation des écosystèmes qu’ils occupent. Les traités internationaux et les autres initiatives servent à protéger les habitats cibles, tels que les zones humides, ou les processus écologiques. Les réserves peuvent être créées pour protéger des zones à très haute diversité d’espèces, pour prendre en compte les espèces ou les habitats performants, ou pour se préserver de la variation environnementale tel que le changement climatique. Les APs sont aménagées pour optimiser la taille, la forme, la complémentarité, la replication et la connectivité selon les objectifs spécifiques de la conservation. Le zonage et l'implication des parties prenantes peuvent être des outils efficaces pour tenir compte des objectifs humains à travers le processus de création. Les méthodes tels que l’analyse des carences et les algorithmes de sélection d’une réserve fournissent un niveau d’objectivité, de cohérence et de transparence pour l’aménagement d’une réserve.

Néanmoins, de nombreuses APs sont menacées ou situées et aménagées d’une manière qui ne correspond pas aux priorités de conservation (Chape et al., 2005), et des questions subsistent en ce qui concerne la mise en œuvre, la gestion et l'efficacité des zones protégées du monde entier. Pour enquêter sur la manière dont les aspects théoriques de l’aménagement d’une réserve jouent dans le monde réel, se référer à la seconde module REPC de la série : “Aires protégées et Conservation de la biodiversité II : Gestion et efficacité”.


Nous remercions avec gratitude les personnes suivantes: James P. Gibbs, Nora Bynum, Craig Starger et Camila Sibata.


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Aires protégées et Conservation de la biodiverisité I iconObjectifs nationaux et la vision pour les aires protégées
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