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The Government of the Republic of Togo have prepared, with the backup provided by partners in development and silent partners the PNIASA which aims at « increasing the yield of agricultural exploitations and at contributing to the improvement of the balance of trades and of the conditions of life of the populations in rural areas in conditions of sustainable development with a particular attention paid to the poorest and most vulnerable populations ».. To reach this objective, five priority axes have been defined. They are mainly dealing with the following orientations : (i) intensification and sustainable development of agricultural production systems, so as to increase the farmers’ income and the conditions of life of populations in rural areas; (ii) promotion of channels of diversification and agribusiness development ; (iii) structuring the farming world and professionalizing farmers; (iv) reinforcing institutional capacities of services (of both public and private sectors) ; (v) promoting the right to food, good governance about food and nutritional security.
Objective of the Framework of Environmental and Social Management
The objective of the Framework of Environmental and Social Management is to establish a process of environmental and social selection which will enable the structures in charge of implementing the PNIASA, to effectively identify, evaluate and reduce the potential environmental and social impacts of the activities of the PNIASA at the stages of planning, implementation and follow-up. The process of environmental and social review of the Framework of Environmental and Social Management will be integrated to the general process of approbation and funding of the activities. The implementation of the Framework of Environmental and Social Management will take into account the backup policy of the World Bank and will be in conformity with the environmental laws of the Republic of Togo for each activity. The Framework of Environmental and Social Management also determines the institutional arrangements to make during the execution of the program, as well as those relative to reinforcement of capacities.
Negative environmental and social impacts
The negative environmental impacts of the project will mainly come from the construction and the rehabilitation of infrastructures (tracks, schools, health care centers, latrines, water supply spots, markets, etc.) but also from income generating activities (farming, in terms of disturbance of life environment, production of solid and liquid wastes, insecurity linked to the works, occupation of private land plots, use of pesticides, etc.) Furthermore, the potential exploitation of quarries for building materials could also constitute sources of negative impacts on the natural environment and there arises the necessity of restoration actions after use.
In the phase of the implementation of the PNIASA, the negative impacts expected are inherent to the felling of trees in order to pave sites for new construction works and to the production wastes on construction sites. All in all, the direct and indirect effects are: various kinds of pollution (anarchical disposal of solid and liquid wastes from building sites, road traffic disruptions, noise, dust emissions, risks of accidents in the human milieu); probable reduction of the vegetal layer in order to free the encroachment zones or due to the opening up and the exploitation of building material quarries; harmful effects linked to the use of pesticides in agricultural activities; bad management of biomedical wastes in health care centers, etc.
The new constructions or the extension of the existing infrastructures could imply the acquisition of land plots, perhaps already used for other activities carried out by the populations (occupation by the populations, agricultural production, pasturage, etc.), which may result into moving populations or loss of activities.
In order to find an answer to these negative impacts, the selection process proposed in the Framework of Environmental and Social Management, will be carried out in such a way that the biophysical characteristics of the zones where the activities of the project will be performed be taken into account, and that measures of attenuation be consequently implemented.
National legislation in terms of EIE (EIA)
As for what specifically concerns impact studies, the Ministère de l’Environnement et des Ressources Forestières [Ministry of Environment and of Forestry Resources] will above all make use of the edict regulating Environment Impacts Assessment (EIA) which provides precision on the circumstances and conditions in accordance with which it is compulsory to get an EIA ready. The annex of the edict regulating the EIA indicates an inventory of activity sectors and the type of SIE required for each activity
Backup policies of the World Bank
Due to environmental and social impacts that could result from the future activities of building and rehabilitation of micro projects, the PNIASA has triggered on three of the backup policies of the World Bank, precisely, the OP 4.01 « Environmental Evaluation»; the OP 4.12 « Involuntary Resettlement » and the OP 4.09 « Anti-parasitic Fight ». The other organizational policies of the World Bank are not relevant for this program.
Environmental selection process of projects
The different stages of the environmental and social selection process are established in this Framework of Environmental and Social Management. The scale of the environmental and social measures required for the activities of PNIASA will depend on the results obtained by the selection process. This selection process aims at : (i) determining which actions by the PNIASA are likely to have negative impacts at the environmental and social level; (ii)establishing the appropriate attenuation measures for the activities having harmful impacts, (iii) identifying the activities necessitating separate Environment Impacts Assessment (EIA); (iv) describing institutional responsibilities for the study and approval of selection results, the implementation of proposed attenuation measures, and the preparation of the Environment Impacts Assessment (EIA) reports; (v) carrying out the follow up of environmental parameters during the building/redevelopment of infrastructures and equipments as well as of their functioning and of their subsequent maintenance; and (vi) indicating the activities of PNIASA likely to implicate the acquisition of land plots.
The table below gives a recapitulation of the stages and institutional responsibilities.
Framework of Environmental and Social Management of the project
The objective of the reinforcement of the Environmental and Social management for the PNIASA is to describe the institutional mechanisms pertaining to : (i) identification of environmental and social potential impacts that could result from the activities of the PNIASA; (ii) the implementation of the proposed attenuation measures ; (iii) the follow-up and the implementation attenuation measures iv) the reinforcement of capacities; (v) the estimates of costs relative thereto as well as chronology The Framework of Environmental and Social Management put the emphasis on the measures of attenuation of the impacts which will follow from the execution of the PNIASA activities.
Reinforcement of Capacities for Environmental Management in the PNIASA Framework
The Framework of Environmental and Social Management suggests institutional and technical backup measures for training, sensitization in order to reinforce the capacities of structures and human resources; Reinforcement of the environmental expertise of the “Environment and social cell” [Cellule environnement et social] and of the executives of the MAEH ; Realization of the Environment Impacts Assessment (EIA), Elaboration of environmental and social guidelines to insert into the works ; Follow-up and Evaluation of the PNIASA activities; Training for the actors involved in the implementation of the PNIASA.
Institutions responsible for the implementation and the follow-up of the attenuation measures
In all cases, the supervision and the environmental follow-up will be carried out by:
The summary of the budget of the environmental and social Management of the PNIASA comes as follows:
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